S. Park (aka sparky) toiling away at everything and nothing for a bleak final outcome for Unit 14 of BA Graphic Design at CSM

Exploring the visual culture of WWII, in comparison to the visual culture of modern warfare.
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Medal Policy 2

Research

British War & Defence Medal Set

War Medal
(1939-1945)

Generally awarded if the service period qualified for one of the Stars and if terminated by death, disability due to service or capture as a prisoner-of-war. A merchant seaman had to have served a minimum of 28 days at sea

Atlantic Star
(1939-1945)

Awarded after the Battle of the Atlantic for service between 3 September 1939 and 8 May 1945 and if the service period was terminated by their death or disability due to service. The qualifying service period for the Atlantic Star could only begin after the 1939-1945 Star had been earned by 6 months’ service. A merchant seaman had to serve in the Atlantic, home waters, North Russia Convoys or South Atlantic waters. The Atlantic Star was also awarded to those awarded a gallantry medal, with no minimum qualifying period.

1939-1945 Star
Awarded for service between 3 September 1939 and 2 September 1945 and if the service period was terminated by death or disability due to service. A merchant seaman could qualify after 6 months’ service with at least one voyage in an operational area. The 1939-1945 Star was also awarded to recipients of a gallantry medal, with no minimum qualifying period.

Africa Star
(1940-1943)

Awarded for service between 10 June 1940 and 12 May 1943, serving in the Mediterranean. A merchant seaman might also qualify serving in operations off the Moroccan coast between 8 November 1942 and 12 May 1943. The minimum qualifying period was one day.

Pacific Star
(1941-1945)

Awarded for service in the Pacific Ocean, South China Sea or the Indian Ocean between 8 December 1941 and 2 September 1945. Generally the qualifying service period for the Pacific Star could only begin after the 1939-1945 Star had been earned by 6 months’ service.

Burma Star
(1941-1945)

Awarded for service in the Burma Campaign between 11 December 1941 and 2 September 1945. A merchant seaman qualified serving within a restricted area in the Bay of Bengal. Generally the qualifying service period for the Burma Star could only begin after the 1939-1945 Star had been earned by 6 months’ service.

France & Germany Star
(1944-1945)

Awarded for service between 6 June 1944 and 8 May 1945, in direct support of land operations in France, Belgium, Holland or Germany, in the North sea, the English Channel or the Bay of Biscay (service off the coast of the south of France could qualify for the Italy Star, see below). There was no minimum time qualification for a Merchant Seaman.

Italy Star
(1943-1945)

Awarded for service between 11 June 1943 and 8 May 1945, in the Mediterranean and the Aegean Sea. Operations in and around the Dodecanese, Corsica, Greece, Sardinia and Yugoslavia after 11 June 1943 would also qualify. Generally the qualifying service period for the Italy Star could only begin after the 1939-1945 Star had been earned by 6 months’ service. There were no clasps awarded with the Italy Star.

Information Source: The National Archives; Photo source: WW2 Depot

Medal Policy

Research,, WWII

Maximum number of WWII Medals

No one person could receive more than 5 stars and the two medals. Also no one person was awarded more than one clasp to any one campaign star.

This maximum entitlement can be expressed as

  • 1939-45 Star
  • Atlantic Star (or Aircrew Europe or France and Germany)
  • Africa Star
  • Pacific Star (or Burma Star)
  • Italy Star
  • Defence Medal
  • War Medal

Info from Stephen Stratford.co.uk, Image from WWII Medals Badges & Insignia

Cam-ouflage

Research,, WWII

Early in the war soldiers realized the need for local camouflage adaptation. Foliage was commonly held with various equipment straps and wire.

Left: Multiple Segment Tent; Right: Luftwaffe field division in training. The zeltbahn is being used as a rainproof poncho.

Though the veil is commonly miscontrued as sniper equiment, it was issued to all types of SS close combat ground forces.

Looking at the language of camouflage – the phenomenon of hiding from sight to gain sight.

Interesting to see that the differences in the German SS uniforms are dependant on season, weather and purpose. Also, I’m pretty sure the uniforms for the French, English, American, Japanese and all other nations are different in camouflage design. The French and the Germans would’ve fought in very similar geographic conditions, what had determined the differences in design? I’d love to find out more about how each nations’ camouflage pattern designer interpreted the colour of season differently.

What are current military camouflage based on? Who designs them?

Calendar
May 2019
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To-Do List
  • Do mock-up of Jacket and figure out max ribbon panel count
  • Figure out number of categories & order ribbons!
  • Obtain statistics for the categories
  • Visit Imperial War Museum
  • Visit National Army Museum
  • Visit the 'Decode' Exhibition at V&A
  • Explore visual culture of War - information graphics?